Research in Brief

The Evolution and Challenges of UN Targeted Sanctions

In 1990, the United Nations Security Council imposed several economic sanctions on Iraq in response to Saddam Hussein’s invasion of Kuwait. These measures were aimed at restoring international peace and security; however, they failed to accomplish their goals while raising political, economic, and humanitarian concerns. This was also the case with similar sanctions imposed on Haiti and former Yugoslavia. As a result, the UN’s authorities have diversified the kind of sanctions that it can impose, as well as the targets of these sanctions, to address those concerns and increase the effectiveness of its sanctions.

Common Cents: The Benefits of Expanding Head Start

New research indicates that Head Start offers a substantial benefit for students who are least likely to enroll and yields a significant financial gain for the government.

Better School Outcomes Aren’t Free

A new analysis demonstrates that funding increases make a huge difference in schooling outcomes, especially for students from low-income families.

Feel It in the Air: Pollution and Crime in Chicago

A recent study provides the first quasi-experimental evidence of a link between air pollution and criminal behavior. Researchers estimate the cost of pollution-induced crime and make a case for environmental sustainability policies that consider the impact of pollution and crime on communities.

Testing vs. Discretion: How Should Firms Hire Their Employees?

New research analyzes how hiring decisions made using job assessments versus manager discretion impact employee retention and productivity.

Messages to Parents Can Help Low-Performing Students

Weekly, direct messages from teachers to parents significantly reduce low-performing students' risk of not earning course credit.

Can Drones Help Prevent Human Rights Abuses?

Surveillance drones have the potential to deter and prevent human rights violations.

Including LGBT Data in Electronic Health Records

Recently, the University of California Davis Health System became the first US academic health center to introduce sexual orientation and gender identity data into its electronic health records.

Mindfulness in the Classroom: Meeting Children’s Socioemotional Needs

Evidence suggests that children exposed to social and emotional learning programs with mindfulness practices show significant improvements in executive functions, well-being, social behavior, and academic performance.

The Interaction between Family Networks and Labor Markets: Evidence from West Africa

Research exposes the significant impact of family networks on labor market dynamics in developing countries.